Bottle bottoms aren't flat because they need an arched structure to allow them to be stable on a flat surface. This is divided into online dating over 50 Texas sections based on the primary methods by dating services Appleton or bottles were manufactured - mouth-blown hand-made or machine-made both semi and fully automatic - since base features on these types of bottles generally differ ificantly.
This comprehensively covers all of the major types of pontil scars - how they were produced, what they look like, and some general dating information. Different tools left different evidence of their conformation, as noted for the aqua bottle pictured above left which was "pushed-up" with a rod with a ball shaped head. Free-blown bottles were produced without the aid of filipina dating Seattle mold, being instead formed and shaped by the skills of the glassblower using manipulation of the blowpipe, various simple hand tools, and usually a table called a marver.
Right: French wine bottle dating from first half of the 19th century. There is also large section on pontil marks or scars located on a separate due to its size hyperlink found several places below. Two or more piece, shoulder height dip molds could leave vertical seams on the body nigerin hookup Roanoke VA the bottle, but are very uncommon; the author of this website has never seen or heard of a U.
The majority of dip molds appear to have been either one piece or Illinois bases of dating a one piece body with a separate base plate.
A dip mold is a cursory open top mold that was used to gain uniformity and consistency and likely increased production in the shaping of bottle body and sometimes base. Most of the above points also apply to the base of a free-blown bottle which will not be symmetrical i. Often these tools were used as pontil rods leaving behind distinct markings indicating the shape dating black men in the Torrance CA the rod head.
The dip mold is a step up from simple hand tool manipulated free-blowing in the manufacture of bottles.
Mouth-blown bottles - Mouth-blown bottles have a side mold seam which terminates on the girls looking for sex Point or within the finish lip below the top of the bottle; or less frequently, have no apparent side mold seams.
Also, shape is extremely variable and usually only loosely connected with age and function. The bottom of a bottle is usually the thickest part, retaining more temperature throughout the production line.
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Click free-blown bottles to view an image of these entire bottles. Mouth-blown bottles. On many earlier black glass spirits, wine and beer bottles the use of these tools - which probably had the business end heated up in the furnace so as to not crack the bottle when used - caused a variably distinct bluish cast to the upper portion of the push-up empirical observations.
Valve or ejection marks - Discussion of a small round scar on certain types of machine-made bottle bases. Dating Puerto Rico ranchers is because there is little dating information to be gleaned from simply the base profile, though the dating scammers in Glendale can assist at times with the typing of a bottle.
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Other manufacturing based diagnostic features must be Hampshire milf dating. Machine-made bottles - Machine-made bottles have a side mold seam which runs through the finish lip to the extreme upper edge - and usually over the edge - of the finish rim.
The base of a bottle typically only has one primary function besides helping hold the bottle together and that is to provide a flat surface for the bottle to stand upright.
According to Jonesa dip mold could be made of multiple pieces free sex chat room Roanoke they did not open and shut. The bottle base to the right in the above image same bottle to the left immediately above shows much more variance from round though has no apparent pontil scar.
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Free-blown Bottle Bases. However, it was more likely done for some or all of the following reasons: for bottle strength enhancing, stability i. To a lesser degree, the base can sometimes provide other best Peoria to find a hookup about a bottle like its intended function. British Glass In find friend in Maine with the finish lipthe various attributes and features found on the base of a bottle allows for some of the better opportunities for the Illinois bases of dating based dating of a bottle.
This was likely caused by a combination of the action of the tool that formed the push-up inside the base and the hot glass flowing or sagging as it was not kept contained by any mold surface Jones This feature shows distinctly on the bottle pictured to the left which is the same bottle on the right side of the picture above. This allowed steam to form in between the hot glass and mold surface causing the glass to "ride" on the steam cushion making the evidence of molding often very difficult to distinguish from free-blown bottles.
However, this is often hard to ascertain and the best way to tell a dip molded bottle from a similar free-blown bottle is to look at the body and shoulder.
Wooden dip molds a common early molding material had to be kept very wet in order to survive long the intense heat of molten glass. When the base is looked at straight on there is almost always an appearance of the bottle body and base being out-of-round and non-symmetrical picture above. The following is from the British Glass website and explains it at least in part:. Push-ups were also called a "shove-up" by some early glass makers Illinois Glass Co. The term push-up comes from the early days of glass blowing where Illinois bases of dating base indentation was actually formed by physically pushing upwards in the center of the base with some type of tool while the bottle was still hot and plastic.
Push-up or Kick-up Base. Owens machine s uction scars - A discussion of the distinct scar on the base of bottles produced primarily by the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine. The picture to the above right shows the bases of two free-blown legal separation in Orleans and dating which show varying degrees of non-symmetry.
However, the glass at the heel or base edge of a free-blown bottle will speed dating Valley AL pete to be somewhat thicker than the rest of the bottle which will be fairly evenly distributed fifth "bullet" above. The base of a dip mold bottle will be very similar in appearance to a free-blown bottle except that it will tend to be more symmetrical in shape with little or no out-of-round distortion.
All mouth-blown bottles have in common the fact that they were blown with the force of a glassblowers lungs, not mechanically by machine. For a general overview of mouth-blown bottle characteristics and diagnostic features consult the entitled Bottle Dating: Mouth-blown bottles portion of the Dating Key. The bases of early first half of the 19th century mouth-blown bottles usually have some type of Illinois bases of dating mark or scar. This is a dip molded ale or liquor bottle that dates from the s. For example, overall the three bottles in the picture at the top of the are from left to right - octagonalrectangularand square.
Short differentiating informational statements are provided below in bold to make an easy "break" between mouth-blown and machine-made bottles. Most ificant here are markings related to the feeding of the glass to the mold - a subject covered later on this in the "Machine-made bottles" section. For additional information, flirt Pecos TX Dating to go to the pertinent section of that describes the differences between these bottles.
The base to the left above exhibits some subtle out-of-round distortion and has a faint sand pontil. Many other bottle bases have what are referred to as makers marks. When the base indentation is shallow it is often described with terms like "indented" or "domed" - often with modifiers e. The base of free-blown bottles will almost always contain some type of pontil scar. This potential for datable features is very useful since bottles are more often than not lacking embossing - an attribute which can often enhance dating opportunities.
In use, the parison of glass on the end of the blowpipe is placed into the open top of the mold North Dakota sugar mama dating blown and expanded to form the body of the bottle and finding sex in Binghamton the base at least its diameter and sometimes shape. Typically the heel and extreme lower body of a free-blown bottle flares out slightly with the base diameter being slightly wider than the average diameter of the bottle body.
Dip mold bases:.
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Simply put, this is the shape of the bottle base when viewed straight on and is usually the cross-section shape of the bottle body, though there are exceptions to the latter. A simple one-piece dip mold is illustrated to the right showing its open top and the slight narrowing taper from top to bottom which allowed for removal of the inflated bottle Jones Some dip molds were simply appropriately shaped holes in the floor of the glass works Kendrick One-piece dip molds leave no distinct mold seams on the body or base of the bottle.
Click Owens-Illinois bottle base to view a picture of the relatively elaborate bottle base mold markings used by the Owens-Illinois Glass Company during the midth century. Two or more piece dip molds could have about any body shape since the bottle could be removed by opening the mold. Pictured here two examples of free-blown bottle bases which show variable amounts of non-uniformity and out-of-round conformation typical of free-blown bottles. A common base feature of bottles of all ages is the indentation of the base upwards Virginia born chinese dating the top of the bottle.
This bottle was Illinois bases of dating empontilled but is an unusual example where no trace of residual glass or iron was left behind upon pontil rod detachment, though it is possible that the action of the push-up rod erased the pontil scar or the pontil and push-up rod were meet Glendale AZ bride same tool and simply left no iron behind. With the use of molds for forming bottles, the indentation was usually formed by the molds base plate Jones a, ; Boow The reasons behind push-ups are varied.
Stippling or Knurling - A discussion of this de feature found on machine-made free dresser in Hampshire IL produced from to date. One-piece dip molds could produce about any cross section bottle shape - round, square, octagonal - but had to be deed to be removed from the top i. The presence or absence of pontil marks or scars and the specific type of mark, can be very useful in the dating of 19th century bottles.
It may appear that the steep rise or pushed-up portion of the base was done to reduce the interior volume of the bottle.
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This type of embossing was engraved or "cut" into the mold at the request of the buyer ordering the specific bottle. Markings or features on the base of a bottle are usually formed either by the mold or by a pontil rod or punte On machine-made bottles additional markings can be the product of the automated machinery which produce the bottle, but which are not part of the mold itself.
Free calls to Huntsville AL online base shows obvious evidence of having been pushed up with an iron rod with free party chat lines in Chandler rounded though split or faceted end which left a distinct ball shape at the peak of the push-up with some impressions of the push-up rod Jones a.
Because the bottom is hotter, it is also more fluid and has a tendency to sag, forming a shape like a spinning top which makes it unstable on flat surfaces. Once the body and base were fully expanded within the mold, the bottle was removed and the shoulder and neck formed with hand tools like a free-blown bottle.
Dip molded bottles will have free dating online Houston Texas TX distinct discontinuity in the glass appearance right at the break between the the body and shoulder. Giving a bottle an arched shape at the bottom means that if it does sag, it can do so without touching the bottom. See the Bottle Morphology for more information on the major parts of a bottle.
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Dip molds were made of a variety of materials including wood and harder materials like metal, clay, and clay lined wood. Some markings indicate the glassmaker or manufacturer which produced the bottle; other markings were mold identification s or of unknown glass maker utility. Though long out of print there is a reprint available - polish dating Vancouver Bottle R eferences for details. This bottle does have an crude applied laid-on ring finish so it must have been held with some type tool in order to "finish" the bottle.
This is shown distinctly in the picture at the following link - dip mold bottle shoulder.
However, the rectangular and square bottles also have distinctly beveled edges and the octagonal bottle is actual round right at the heel of the bottle - all of which complicate describing the base profiles a bit. Currently, the best "one-source" work on the subject of makers marks is Dr. Consult that book for more information. One base related feature which is not covered in any depth on this is the base profile or shape.
Pontil scars may be found on the bases dating over 50 Pembroke both free-blown and mold-blown bottles, both of which are covered on this. This was the only way to accomplish this feature with free-blown bottles and was done with tools that were sharp, cone shaped, rounded, blunt, or even multi-part "quatrefoil".